Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ( ISI ), Volume (133), Year (2016-1) , Pages (43363-43373)

Title : ( Butyl rubber reclamation by combined microwave radiation and chemical reagents )

Authors: Masoumeh Khavarnia , Saeed Ostad Movahed ,

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Rubber recycling is growing worldwide because of increasing raw material costs. In addition, extensive use of rubber articles and their eventual disposal is a major concern for the environment. Butyl rubber (IIR) was devulcanized by microwave radiation with the aid of devulcanizing reagents and oil. The effect of several devulcanizing reagents, hexadecylamine (HAD), Diphenyl disulfide (DPDS), N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiozyl sulfenamide (CBS) and tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) on devulcanization process, was studied. The investigation was carried out in various microwave radiation temperatures and different amounts of aromatic and paraffinic oils. The results showed that waste rubber powder with a median particle size of 279 μm was devulcanized efficiently. It confirmed when devulcanization % of the devulcanizates were measured by swelling tests. Among of the devulcanizing reagents and based on Horix analysis, HDA with the sol fraction, crosslink density (CLD) and devulcanization percent of 14%, 25 mol/m^3 and 64%, respectively, was the most suitable devulcanizing reagent. In addition, compound with 30 and 6 phr paraffinic oil and HDA in formulation, respectively, had maximum devulcanization % ( 83%). The devulcanizing temperature of this compound was 180 ℃ . For the most of all compounds, during microwave radiation, a part of disulphides crosslinks were broken and released sulphurs giving new mono and polysulphides bridges. This resulted in the higher CLD's for some compounds when they compared with CLD of the initial waste rubber. In the morphological study of the devulcanized compounds, vulcanized rubbers clearly showed in the SEM micrographs surrounded by a matrix of devulcanized rubber.


, Butyl rubber, devulcanization, microwave, reclamation,
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author = {Khavarnia, Masoumeh and Ostad Movahed, Saeed},
title = {Butyl rubber reclamation by combined microwave radiation and chemical reagents},
journal = {Journal of Applied Polymer Science},
year = {2016},
volume = {133},
month = {January},
issn = {0021-8995},
pages = {43363--43373},
numpages = {10},
keywords = {Butyl rubber; devulcanization; microwave; reclamation; Hexadecylamine},


%0 Journal Article
%T Butyl rubber reclamation by combined microwave radiation and chemical reagents
%A Khavarnia, Masoumeh
%A Ostad Movahed, Saeed
%J Journal of Applied Polymer Science
%@ 0021-8995
%D 2016