Title : Potentials and Constraints on Dryland Restoration: Case studies from Iran. in V.R.Squires (Ed) Ecolo

Mohammad Farzam (نویسنده اصلی),
Book type: تالیف
Publish No: اول
Publishe Date: 2016-02-10
Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Iran is a dry country, with 88 percent of its territory being located in the hyper arid, arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid areas. Iran has a 4000-year history of human civilization, vast diversity of landscapes with 8000 plant, 535 bird, 197 mammal and 870 fish species. However, rapid increase of human population, industrialization together with adverse climatic conditions in recent decades have led to rapid migration from rural to the urban areas and extensive over use of natural resources. Land degradation (desertification) is a serious problem in drylands of Iran, which is indicated as highest rate of soil erosion in the world, dramatic decrease of water table, extensive salinisation of agricultural soil and high rate of species loss. Restoration activities in Iran have started from mid-twenties century as case by case projects on sand dune fixations, seed and seedling planting, and livestock management schemes. Only in the recent decade, cooperation with international organizations (e.g., UNDP and GEF), and interactions with the national universities and research centers have led to implementation of national action plans. Ongoing restoration projects enjoy more emphasis on technical aspects, ensuring community participation, incorporating research and traditional knowledge, and sectoral and cross-sectoral cooperation. Three cases studies are described in this chapter that were initially conducted as pilot projects, but now become as national action plans. Water spreading project in Grabaygan, has combined traditional knowledge with modern techniques; it led to increases in species diversity, forage production and water table levels. Land and water management project in Hablehrud has led to a sustainable development via formation of job associations, e.g., honey-bee makers, also development of small gardens and yards. Carbon sequestration project in Hoseinabad established village development groups and implemented biological desert restoration, green space development as well as establishment of biogas system, and formation of microcreditfunds.

restoration projects, local people participation, desertification, national action plan, restoration projects, local people participation, desertification, national action plan