XXIX International Congress of Psychology , 2008-07-20

Title : ( Individual and Combined Effects of Information-Enhancement and Goal-Setting on Improving Motivational Structure )

Authors: Zohreh Sepehri Shamloo , W. Miles Cox ,

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Motivational structure affects the way people approach various situations they encounter in their everyday lives. Adaptive motivational structure promotes successful goal attainment, whereas maladaptive motivation hinders people from effective goal seeking. Evidence from the model also shows the vital importance of motivational structure in emotional regulation. The decisions to drink are more likely when the individuals are unable to achieve emotional satisfaction through other goal pursuits or to overcome the miseries that impede their lives. Some research focuses on the role of cognitive factors—especially the sense of control and intrinsic motivation—in goal pursuit and accomplishing goals. We found the effect of the sense of control and intrinsic motivation can influence the motivational structure. We utilized two manipulation techniques to improve sense of control and intrinsic motivation that include (1) Enhancement-Information (i.e., (a) choice: a chance to choose the order of their tasks, (b) knowledge: providing basic information about performing their tasks successfully, (c) contingent, immediate feedback on their performance; and (d) emotional control: helping participants to stay calm.) and (2) Goal setting required participants to set goals to improve their speed of problem solving. The current study (N = 144, 38% males) compared the effectiveness of Enhancement Information and Goal Setting in a 2 x 2 between and within subjects factorial design to determine the relative or combined influences of each technique on producing positive motivational consequences previously observed for the High Sense of Control Group. All participants completed two experimental tasks (Anagrams and Conceptual Identification) under four experimental conditions: No-Intervention (no manipulation, no time limit); Goal setting Group (no information with specific goal); Information group (i.e., information with no specific goal); and Combination Group (i.e., information with specific goal). The study used the task-specific Personal Concern Inventory (TSPCI), the task-specific Shapiro Control Inventory (TSSCI), and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). The experimental manipulation used a modified and computerized version of Concept-Training Cards and Anagrams. The study compared (through pre- and post-test measurements) the influence of the presence or lack of goal-related information (i.e., choice, knowledge, feedback), or goal setting to improve problem-solving skills in the actual performance. The results showed that the greatest increase in adaptive motivation resulted from a combined technique and the order of groups on post-test was from the highest to the lowest as: Combination Group (i.e., enhancement information and goal setting)> Information Group > Goal-Setting Group > No-Intervention Group. In addition, a 45-day follow up assessment showed the stability of the motivational changes after 45 days. The results suggested that when adaptive motivational structure changes are strong enough, it is possible for further positive changes to occur across time.


Improving Motivational
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author = {Sepehri Shamloo, Zohreh and W. Miles Cox},
title = {Individual and Combined Effects of Information-Enhancement and Goal-Setting on Improving Motivational Structure},
booktitle = {XXIX International Congress of Psychology},
year = {2008},
location = {GERMANY},
keywords = {Improving Motivational Structure},


%0 Conference Proceedings
%T Individual and Combined Effects of Information-Enhancement and Goal-Setting on Improving Motivational Structure
%A Sepehri Shamloo, Zohreh
%A W. Miles Cox
%J XXIX International Congress of Psychology
%D 2008