Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ( ISI ), Volume (104), No (4), Year (2012-4) , Pages (335-340)

Title : ( Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds )

Authors: Mohammad Azizzadeh , hadi fazeli shooroki , ali shafiee , Mark A. Stevenson ,

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The objective of this study was to document mortality reasons and risk factors for mortality in dairy calves in the northeast of Iran. This was a prospective cohort study of calves born on ten commercial dairy herds from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2010. A total of 4,097 live calves were followed for 90 days after birth. For each calf, sex, parity of the dam, type of parturition and season of birth were recorded. The interval (in days) from the date of birth to the date of death and the reason for death was recorded for those calves that died before 90 days of age. A Cox proportional hazards model, including a frailty term to account for unmeasured herd-level effects was developed to quantify the effect of factors associated with time to death. Two hundred and sixty six (6.5%, 95% CI: 5.8-7.3) of the 4097 live-born calves died or were euthanized before 90 days of age. The most important reasons for death were digestive tract disorders (58% of all deaths, 95% CI: 52-64) followed by respiratory diseases (13% of all deaths, 95% CI: 9-17). Calves exposed to dystocia at birth had 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49-2.92) times the daily hazard of death compared with calves born from a normal calving. The daily hazard of death for calves born in the summer was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.41-2.64) times greater than the hazard for those calves born in the fall. Inclusion of the herd-level frailty term had a significant effect on hazard estimates indicating that the study herds were heterogeneous in the distribution of unmeasured herd-level factors influencing calf survival. Our results show that diarrhoea is the most important cause of calf mortality in dairy herds in this area of Iran and that environmental and management factors affect calf mortality rate.


Calf mortality; Risk factor; Holstein; Iran
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author = {Azizzadeh, Mohammad and Fazeli Shooroki, Hadi and Shafiee, Ali and Mark A. Stevenson},
title = {Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds},
journal = {Preventive Veterinary Medicine},
year = {2012},
volume = {104},
number = {4},
month = {April},
issn = {0167-5877},
pages = {335--340},
numpages = {5},
keywords = {Calf mortality; Risk factor; Holstein; Iran},


%0 Journal Article
%T Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds
%A Azizzadeh, Mohammad
%A Fazeli Shooroki, Hadi
%A Shafiee, Ali
%A Mark A. Stevenson
%J Preventive Veterinary Medicine
%@ 0167-5877
%D 2012