Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, ( ISI ), Volume (2), No (117), Year (2012-8) , Pages (73-83)

Title : ( Pan coefficient (Kp) estimation under uncertainty on fetch )

Authors: Masoud Mohammadi , Bijan Ghahraman , Kamran Davary , A. M. Liaghat , Mohammad Bannayan Aval ,

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The FAO Penman–Monteith (F-PM) method is a frequently applied approach for calculating the daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0). This method requires long records of meteorological data, which makes it quite hard to employ in locations with no or limited available data. Evaporation pans are widely used to estimate the reference ET0, but this method requires reliable estimates of the pan coefficient (Kp). The objectives of this study were to determine the proper values of monthly and annual Kp, as well as the best method among those available for the estimation of Kp values in the study area. Measured weather data from 1992 to 2006 were obtained from 18 stations in the North and Northwest of Iran. Daily ET0 calculated using methods by Bernardo et al. and Pereira et al. were compared with those calculated by the F-PM method. The employed methods at all stations, except those located in the north of the study area with high relative humidity, overestimated the ET0 compared to the F-PM method. The constant parameters of these methods were optimized by a trial and error scheme to minimize the root mean square error. The results indicated that modified Kp coefficients from Bernardo et al.’s method ranged between 0.41 and 0.87 and the optimal coefficient of Pereira et al.’s method ranged between 0.49 and 0.95. Modified monthly Kp from Bernardo et al.’s method ranged between 0.3 and 1.07 and those from Pereira et al.’s method ranged between 0.4 and 1.18. Modified Kp of the methods by Bernardo et al. and Pereira et al. showed the higher estimation accuracy of daily ET0 values. In general, the performance of the modified Kp of Bernardo et al.’s method was higher than Pereira et al.’s method for all stations. Thus, in the study region and under the same climatic conditions [in areas with only pan evaporation (Ep) records], the use of climatic monthly modified Kp to calculate ET0 based on class A Ep is recommended.


, FAO Penman–Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, pan coefficient,
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author = {Mohammadi, Masoud and Ghahraman, Bijan and Davary, Kamran and A. M. Liaghat and Bannayan Aval, Mohammad},
title = {Pan coefficient (Kp) estimation under uncertainty on fetch},
journal = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics},
year = {2012},
volume = {2},
number = {117},
month = {August},
issn = {0177-7971},
pages = {73--83},
numpages = {10},
keywords = {FAO Penman–Monteith; reference evapotranspiration; pan coefficient; fetch},


%0 Journal Article
%T Pan coefficient (Kp) estimation under uncertainty on fetch
%A Mohammadi, Masoud
%A Ghahraman, Bijan
%A Davary, Kamran
%A A. M. Liaghat
%A Bannayan Aval, Mohammad
%J Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
%@ 0177-7971
%D 2012