Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, ( ISI ), Volume (23), No (1), Year (2015-3) , Pages (266-274)

Title : ( Sono-synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil by KF/c-Al2O3 as a nano-solid-base catalyst )

Authors: Hassan Shahraki , Mohammad Hassan Entezari , Elaheh Kafshdare Goharshadi ,

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In this work, biodiesel has successfully prepared via ultrasonic method in a short time and low temperature by nano-solid-base catalyst (KF/c-Al2O3). The catalyst was obtained by calcination of a mixture of KF andc-Al2O3ðmKF=mc-Al2O3 ¼70%Þat 500خoC for 3 h. Nano-solid-base catalyst was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravimetry (TG) and the Hammett indicator methods. The TEM image depicted nanoparticles and uniform dispersion of active phase over alumina. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of potassium aluminum fluoride (K3AlF6) and potassium oxide, active catalyst for transesterification. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was performed by using both low frequency ultrasonic reactor (20 kHz) and mechanical stirring in the presence of KF/c-Al2O3. The influence of various parameters such as ultrasonic power, oil/methanol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, time, and temperature were studied on the biodiesel formation. The maximum yield (95%) was achieved by applying 45 W acoustic power, molar ratio of alcohol to oil at 12:1, catalyst concentration of 2.0 wt%, 40 min sonication, and temperature of 50C. The transesterification was performed in 360 min using mechanical stirring with 76% yield. The results confirm that ultrasound significantly accelerates the transesterification reaction in comparison with the mechanical stirring.

Keywords

, Biodieselو, Ultrasonic irradiation, Heterogeneous catalyst,
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@article{paperid:1044577,
author = {Shahraki, Hassan and Entezari, Mohammad Hassan and Kafshdare Goharshadi, Elaheh},
title = {Sono-synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil by KF/c-Al2O3 as a nano-solid-base catalyst},
journal = {Ultrasonics Sonochemistry},
year = {2015},
volume = {23},
number = {1},
month = {March},
issn = {1350-4177},
pages = {266--274},
numpages = {8},
keywords = {Biodieselو، Ultrasonic irradiation، Heterogeneous catalyst، Transesterification},
}

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%0 Journal Article
%T Sono-synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil by KF/c-Al2O3 as a nano-solid-base catalyst
%A Shahraki, Hassan
%A Entezari, Mohammad Hassan
%A Kafshdare Goharshadi, Elaheh
%J Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
%@ 1350-4177
%D 2015

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