Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering, Volume (5), No (4), Year (2015-12) , Pages (169-176)

Title : ( Impact of Various Beam Parameters on Lateral Scattering in Proton and Carbon-ion Therapy )

Authors: Mahdy Ebrahimi , A.A. Mowlavi , Mohammad Hadi Hadizadeh Yazdi , Reza Izadi Najafabadi , S. B. Jia ,

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Background: In radiation therapy with ion beams, lateral distributions of absorbed dose in the tissue are important. Heavy ion therapy, such as carbon-ion therapy, is a novel technique of high-precision external radiotherapy which has advantages over proton therapy in terms of dose locality and biological effectiveness. Methods: In this study, we used Monte Carlo method-based Geant4 toolkit to simulate and calculate the effects of energy, shape and type of ion beams incident upon water on multiple scattering processes. Nuclear reactions have been taken into account in our calculation. A verification of this approach by comparing experimental data and Monte Carlo methods will be presented in an upcoming paper. Results: Increasing particle energies, the width of the Bragg curve becomes larger but with increasing mass of particles, the width of the Bragg curve decreases. This is one of the advantages of carbon-ion therapy to treat with proton. The transverse scattering of dose distribution is increased with energy at the end of heavy ion beam range. It can also be seen that the amount of the dose scattering for carbon-ion beam is less than that of proton beam, up to about 160mm depth in water. Conclusion: The distortion of Bragg peak profiles, due to lateral scattering of carbon-ion, is less than proton. Although carbon-ions are primarily scattered less than protons, the corresponding dose distributions, especially the lateral dose, are not much less.


, Geant4, Proton Therapy, Carbon-ion Therapy, Bragg Peak, Multiple Scattering, Hadronic Interaction, Latteral
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author = {Ebrahimi, Mahdy and A.A. Mowlavi and Hadizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Hadi and Izadi Najafabadi, Reza and S. B. Jia},
title = {Impact of Various Beam Parameters on Lateral Scattering in Proton and Carbon-ion Therapy},
journal = {Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering},
year = {2015},
volume = {5},
number = {4},
month = {December},
issn = {2251-7200},
pages = {169--176},
numpages = {7},
keywords = {Geant4; Proton Therapy; Carbon-ion Therapy; Bragg Peak; Multiple Scattering; Hadronic Interaction; Latteral Dose.},


%0 Journal Article
%T Impact of Various Beam Parameters on Lateral Scattering in Proton and Carbon-ion Therapy
%A Ebrahimi, Mahdy
%A A.A. Mowlavi
%A Hadizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Hadi
%A Izadi Najafabadi, Reza
%A S. B. Jia
%J Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering
%@ 2251-7200
%D 2015