Journal of Insect Physiology, Volume (101), No (4), Year (2017-8) , Pages (82-90)

Title : ( The Role of Pilin Protein of Xenorhabdus Nematophila Against Immune Defense Reactions of Insects )

Authors: Reyhaneh Darsouei , Javad Karimi , G.B. Dunphy ,

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Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A 2 , and phe- noloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides at- tacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times. The level of THC and granulocytes in larvae with different concentrations of pilin protein were less than the negative control. Also agglutination of hae- mocytes was observed 8–16 h post-injection. The pilin protein activated phenoloxidase in the initial hour post- injection, by 2 hpi, activity was stable. The activities of phospholipase A2 and protease activities reached maximum levels at 12 and 4 hpi, respectively, and then decreased. The expressions of attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin in larvae treated with pilin protein were up-regulated above that of the normal sample. The overexpression of cecropin was greater than the other antimicrobial protein mRNA transcripts. The spo- doptericin expression had an irregular trend while expressions of attacin and cecropin reached maximum levels at 4 hpi and then decreased. Generally, after the injection of pilin protein, the cellular and humoral immune system of S. exigua is activated but this toxin was able to inhibit them. This is the first report of the role of pilin protein when the bacterial symbiont of S. carpocapsae encounters the humoral defense of an insect.

Keywords

Antimicrobial peptides Cellular defense Insect pathology Phenoloxidae Phospholipase A
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@article{paperid:1063544,
author = {Darsouei, Reyhaneh and Karimi, Javad and G.B. Dunphy},
title = {The Role of Pilin Protein of Xenorhabdus Nematophila Against Immune Defense Reactions of Insects},
journal = {Journal of Insect Physiology},
year = {2017},
volume = {101},
number = {4},
month = {August},
issn = {0022-1910},
pages = {82--90},
numpages = {8},
keywords = {Antimicrobial peptides Cellular defense Insect pathology Phenoloxidae Phospholipase A 2 Protease},
}

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%0 Journal Article
%T The Role of Pilin Protein of Xenorhabdus Nematophila Against Immune Defense Reactions of Insects
%A Darsouei, Reyhaneh
%A Karimi, Javad
%A G.B. Dunphy
%J Journal of Insect Physiology
%@ 0022-1910
%D 2017

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