Journal of Dairy Science, ( ISI ), Volume (106), No (11), Year (2023-8) , Pages (8047-8059)

Title : ( Effect of ultrasonographic lung consolidation on health and growth in dairy calves: A longitudinal study )

Authors: seyedali saadatnia , Gholam Reza Mohammadi , Mohammad Azizzadeh , Ali Mirshahi , Amir Abbas Mohieddini , Sebastien Buczinski ,

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Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common and complex disease process in calves. Subclinical disease exists and early detection can be challenging due to inconsistent or nonexistent clinical signs. Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) is often used and has the potential to improve the identification of respiratory diseases. Combining systematic TUS with clinical examination allows distinguishing BRD, including upper respiratory tract disease (clinical signs of respiratory disease, but no significant lung consolidation), clinical pneumonia (clinical signs of respiratory disease along with lung consolidations), and subclinical pneumonia (no clinical signs, but lung consolidations). Data on subclinical pneumonia are scarce, particularly outside of the North American or European contexts similar to Iran in west Asia with a dry and semi-arid climate and intensive breeding systems similar to North America which breeding calves begin in individual boxes, then moving to group pens, and finally to free stall or open shed housing systems. The first objective of this longitudinal study was to use weekly ultrasonography to monitor calves from birth until weaning in an Iranian dairy herd. The second objective was to look for any association between individual lung consolidation episode or cumulative consolidation episodes on preweaning growth. Thoracic ultrasonography TUS was performed on calves (n = 221) weekly from birth to weaning (8 wk), and scanning occasions for each calf were equally distributed with 1-wk intervals (using consolidation threshold ≥3 cm as a specific lung consolidation definition, and ≥1 cm as a more sensitive threshold). Calf body weights were recorded using a weight tape. Other information recorded were transfer of passive immunity (TPI) using serum Brix (%) ≥8.4% as adequate TPI within the first week after birth and the treatment history of the calves. The main strategy for modeling was to determine how long-term lung consolidation affects average daily gain (ADG) during the preweaning period. A linear model was used to determine the effect of the number of weeks with consolidation on ADG. Using consolidation threshold of ≥3 cm, the mean (±SD) of total ADG for calves with no consolidation episode, one consolidation episode, and 2 or more consolidation episodes were: 0.45 (±0.10), 0.39 (±0.10), and 0.38 (±0.11) kg/d, respectively. In the final multivariable regression analysis model and based on consolidation threshold of ≥3 cm, calves with one and 2 or more consolidation episodes had significantly lower ADG ± standard error of 0.04 ± 0.02 kg/d, and 0.06 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively compared with animals with no consolidation episode. A total of 20% of calves (46/229 calves that entered the study) were treated for respiratory disease based on clinical signs (based on farmer examination). The final model also included specific confounders related to ADG and their interactions with lung consolidation (transfer of passive immunity [TPI] and BRD treatment). An overall of 86% of adequate TPI was obtained. BRD treatment based on farmer diagnosis had a larger negative effect on preweaning ADG than ultrasonography-diagnosed consolidation episodes (lower ADG ± SE of 0.10 ± 0.03 kg/d). When using a more sensitive consolidation threshold (≥1 cm as consolidation), the number of weeks with consolidation was also negatively associated with the ADG in the multivariable linear regression model with significant difference of 0.05 ± 0.02 kg/d for nonconsolidated calves versus calves consolidated for 2 or more weeks and insignificant difference of 0.01 ± 0.02 kg/d for nonconsolidated calves versus calves with 1 consolidation episode.


, Ultrasonography, lung consolidation , health and growth , dairy calves
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author = {Saadatnia, Seyedali and Mohammadi, Gholam Reza and Azizzadeh, Mohammad and Mirshahi, Ali and Amir Abbas Mohieddini and Sebastien Buczinski},
title = {Effect of ultrasonographic lung consolidation on health and growth in dairy calves: A longitudinal study},
journal = {Journal of Dairy Science},
year = {2023},
volume = {106},
number = {11},
month = {August},
issn = {0022-0302},
pages = {8047--8059},
numpages = {12},
keywords = {Ultrasonography;lung consolidation ;health and growth ;dairy calves},


%0 Journal Article
%T Effect of ultrasonographic lung consolidation on health and growth in dairy calves: A longitudinal study
%A Saadatnia, Seyedali
%A Mohammadi, Gholam Reza
%A Azizzadeh, Mohammad
%A Mirshahi, Ali
%A Amir Abbas Mohieddini
%A Sebastien Buczinski
%J Journal of Dairy Science
%@ 0022-0302
%D 2023