Journal of American Science, ( ISI ), Volume (8), No (1), Year (2012-1) , Pages (623-628)

Title : ( A Comparative study between National Innovation System in Switzerland and Iran )

Authors: Seyedreza Haghi , Ahmad Sabahi , Mahshid Hejazi , Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti ,

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The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of the 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalization. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The organization provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies. The Commission of the European Communities participates in the work of the OECD. We review Swiss experience because \\\\\\\"Switzerland enjoys one of the highest levels of gross domestic product per capita in the OECD area.\\\\\\\" (OECD, 2005) Based on the results of a series of interviews with major stakeholders in Iran\\\\\\\'s innovation system, the innovation policies in Iran will be listed.Basic definitions: An innovation is the implementation of a new significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organization in business practices, workplace organization or external relations. This broad definition of an innovation encompasses a wide range of possible innovations. An innovation can be more narrowly categorized as the implementation of one or more types of innovations, for instance product and process innovations can be related to the definition of technological products and process innovation. The minimum requirement for an innovation is that the product, process, marketing method or organizational method must be new (or significantly improved) to the firm. This includes products, processes and methods that firms are the first to develop and those that have been adopted from other firms or organizations. Organizational activities are all scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to,lead to implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative; others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation. A common feature of an innovation is that it must have been implemented. A new or improved product is implemented when it is introduced on the market. New processes, marketing methods or organizational methods are implemented when they are brought into actual use in the firm\\\\\\\'s operations. An innovation firm is one that has implemented an innovation during the period under review. (OSLO, 2006) Different definitions of National Innovation System are explained as followed:  \\\\\\\"…The network of institutions in the public and private sectors, whose activities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diffuse new technologies.\\\\\\\"(Freeman, 1987)  \\\\\\\"… The elements and relationships which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new, and economically useful, knowledge ... and are either located within or rooted inside the borders of a nation state.\\\\\\\" (Lundvall ,1988)  \\\\\\\"…A set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance of national firms.\\\\\\\" (Nelson , 1993)  \\\\\\\"… The national institutions, their incentive structures and their competencies, that determine the rate and direction of technological learning (or the volume and composition of change generating activities) in a country.\\\\\\\" (Patel and Pavitt ,1994)  \\\\\\\"…That set of distinct institutions which jointly and individually contribute to the development and diffusion of new technologies and which provides the framework within which governments form and implement policies to influence the innovation process. As such it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artifacts which define new technologies.\\\\\\\" (Metcalfe , 1995)


, Innovation policy, institutional mapping, SWOT Analysis, OECD Countries
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author = {Seyedreza Haghi and Sabahi, Ahmad and Mahshid Hejazi and Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti},
title = {A Comparative study between National Innovation System in Switzerland and Iran},
journal = {Journal of American Science},
year = {2012},
volume = {8},
number = {1},
month = {January},
issn = {1545-1003},
pages = {623--628},
numpages = {5},
keywords = {Innovation policy; institutional mapping; SWOT Analysis; OECD Countries},


%0 Journal Article
%T A Comparative study between National Innovation System in Switzerland and Iran
%A Seyedreza Haghi
%A Sabahi, Ahmad
%A Mahshid Hejazi
%A Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti
%J Journal of American Science
%@ 1545-1003
%D 2012