Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ( ISI ), Volume (253), No (4), Year (2011-1) , Pages (188-196)

Title : ( Intracellular GTP levels determine cell fate toward differentiation and apoptosis )

Authors: Azadeh Meshkini , Razieh Yazdanparast , Kazem Nouri ,

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Since the adequate supply of guanine nucleotides is vital for cellular activities, limitation of their syntheses would certainly result in modulation of cellular fate toward differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to set a correlation between the intracellular level of GTP and the induction of relevant signaling pathways involved in the cell\'s fate toward life or death. In that regard, we measured the GTP level among human leukemia K562 cells exposed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) or 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK) as two potent inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Our results supported the maturation of the cells when the intracellular GTP level was reduced by almost 30–40%. Under these conditions, 3-HK and/or MPA caused up-regulation of PKCα and PI3K/AKT pathways. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with hypoxanthine plus 3-HK or MPA, which caused a reduction of about 60% in the intracellular GTP levels, led to apoptosis and activation of mitochondrial pathways through inverse regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, our results demonstrated that attenuation of GTP by almost 60% augmented the intracellular ROS and nuclear localization of p21 and subsequently led to cell death. These results suggest that two different threshold levels of GTP are needed for induction of differentiation and/or ROS-associated apoptosis. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc.


, Intracellular GTP level, Mycophenolic acid, 3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin, Differentiation, Apoptosis
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author = {Meshkini, Azadeh and Razieh Yazdanparast and Kazem Nouri},
title = {Intracellular GTP levels determine cell fate toward differentiation and apoptosis},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
year = {2011},
volume = {253},
number = {4},
month = {January},
issn = {0041-008X},
pages = {188--196},
numpages = {8},
keywords = {Intracellular GTP level; Mycophenolic acid; 3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin; Differentiation; Apoptosis},


%0 Journal Article
%T Intracellular GTP levels determine cell fate toward differentiation and apoptosis
%A Meshkini, Azadeh
%A Razieh Yazdanparast
%A Kazem Nouri
%J Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
%@ 0041-008X
%D 2011