Frontiers in Immunology, Volume (14), Year (2023-3)

Title : ( Extracellular vesicles and their cells of origin: Open issues in autoimmune diseases )

Authors: Azadeh Haghighitalab , Massimo Dominici , Maryam Moghaddam Matin , Faezeh Shekari , Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani , Rebecca Lim , Naghmeh Ahmadiankia , Mahdi Mirahmadi , Ahmad Reza Bahrami , Hamid Reza Bidkhori ,

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The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat autoimmune diseases through suppressing the immune system, such as steroidal and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, are not adequately practical. Moreover, these regimens are associated with considerable complications. Designing tolerogenic therapeutic strategies based on stem cells, immune cells, and their extracellular vesicles (EVs) seems to open a promising path to managing autoimmune diseases’ vast burden. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), dendritic cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the main cell types applied to restore a tolerogenic immune status; MSCs play a more beneficial role due to their amenable properties and extensive cross-talks with different immune cells. With existing concerns about the employment of cells, new cell-free therapeutic paradigms, such as EV-based therapies, are gaining attention in this field. Additionally, EVs’ unique properties have made them to be known as smart immunomodulators and are considered as a potential substitute for cell therapy. This review provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of cellbased and EV-based methods for treating autoimmune diseases. The study also presents an outlook on the future of EVs to be implemented in clinics for autoimmune patients.


, autoimmune diseases (AIDs), immunological tolerance and regulation, cellular therapy, extracellular vesicles (EVs), mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)
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author = {Haghighitalab, Azadeh and Massimo Dominici and Moghaddam Matin, Maryam and فائزه شکری and مجید ابراهیمی ورکیانی and Rebecca Lim and نغمه احمدیان کیا and مهدی میراحمدی and Bahrami, Ahmad Reza and حمیدرضا بیدخوری},
title = {Extracellular vesicles and their cells of origin: Open issues in autoimmune diseases},
journal = {Frontiers in Immunology},
year = {2023},
volume = {14},
month = {March},
issn = {1664-3224},
keywords = {autoimmune diseases (AIDs); immunological tolerance and regulation; cellular therapy; extracellular vesicles (EVs); mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)},


%0 Journal Article
%T Extracellular vesicles and their cells of origin: Open issues in autoimmune diseases
%A Haghighitalab, Azadeh
%A Massimo Dominici
%A Moghaddam Matin, Maryam
%A فائزه شکری
%A مجید ابراهیمی ورکیانی
%A Rebecca Lim
%A نغمه احمدیان کیا
%A مهدی میراحمدی
%A Bahrami, Ahmad Reza
%A حمیدرضا بیدخوری
%J Frontiers in Immunology
%@ 1664-3224
%D 2023